Cisco ASR 903 Series router ISSU upgrade

Cisco ASR900 series is a popular platform in service provider domain. If you remember the famous 7600 platform,  ASR 900(ASR903/907and 914) is next generation to it. Majorly these devices are classified as SP access platforms. ASR 903 routers are known for high speed data plane(forwarding) because of the ASIC based data plane architecture. In this … More Cisco ASR 903 Series router ISSU upgrade

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Question : Why all other areas must be connected to ospf area 0(backbone)?

What I have read and know till now is since ospf behaves like distance vector protocol for inter area communication hence it is vulnerable to routing loops that’s why all the ABRs must be connected to ospf area0 and interarea communication happens through backbone area ….but you may ask that how distance vector in inter … More Question : Why all other areas must be connected to ospf area 0(backbone)?